To choose the right hinge type, the following factors have to be considered: the door height, weight, width and thickness. The trim dimensions are also needed. The following is an example of the type of hinges you should use on doors.
How to Choose the Right Hinge Size
If the door is 1-3/8" thick and up to 32" wide, the hinge can be 3-1/2" high. If the door is 1-3/8" thick and the width is 32" to 36", the hinge should be 4". For a door that is 1-3/4" thick and 36" wide, the hinge height should be 4-1/2".
If the door is 1-3/4" thick and 36" to 48" wide, the ideal hinge height is 5". A 1-3/4" thick door that is over 48" wide should have a 6" high hinge. If the door 2", 2-1/4", 2-1/2" thick and 42" wide, the hinge height is 5" (heavy weight). For the 2", 2-1/4", 2-1/2" thick door and 42" wide, the hinge size should be 6" (heavy weight).
Location of the Hinges
The bottom hinge is 10 inches from the bottom edge of the barrel to the floor. The top hinge (five inches) is from the jamb rabbet to the upper edge of the barrel. The third hinge should be in the center of the bottom and top hinges. These standards are for the U.S.
The butt hinge is the most common type used in homes. These are available widely and made from different materials. Finishes and materials used include the cast iron, aluminum, stainless steel, plain steel and brass.
There are also soft metal hinges like brass with phosphor bronze washers along the knuckle joints. This will boost their lifespan, particularly if the door is used on a consistent basis. The butt hinge sizes are varied. The dimensions will also depend on how they will be used.
Guide for Using Three Hinges
Doors in most homes will only need two hinges, but those for public buildings and fire doors need three hinges. For doors over 20 kg, three hinges are necessary. The following is a guide on what 3 hinge class to use on doors.
For light wardrobe doors (2040 x 626 x 40 mm, 3 – 10 kg), the hinge class to be used is class 1. Class 2 is for heavy wardrobe doors (2040 x 926 x 40 mm, 10 – 17.5 kg).
Classes 3-4 are for medium internal doors (2040 x 1012 x 40 mm, 17.5 – 25 kg). Class 5 is for half hour fire doors (2040 x 826 x 44 mm, 25 – 37.5 kg). Class 6-8 is for one hour fire doors (2040 x 826 x 54 mm, 37.5 – 72.5 kg).
Class 6-7 is for heavy external doors (2040 x 1002 x 44 mm, 37.5 – 55 kg). Class 7-9 is for oversize special external doors (2400 x 1200 mm, 55 – 110 kg).
Unless the right door hinge size is selected, the door could warp. In the case of fire doors, the type of hinge you use can determine its efficiency, hence its importance.